Select one (1) peer-reviewed research article that you used in your research paper to share with the class. Do not discuss en editorial or letter to editor.
After reading your selected article, post the following information:
1. Why is the research question significant to your research paper?
2. What was the purpose of the study?
3. What was the study design?
4. Who was in the study population(s)/sample(s)?
5. What was the outcome and was it consistent with the researcher(s)’ original research question?
6. What recommendation(s) did the researcher offer for future studies?
7. How do you know this article was peer-reviewed? OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DI SEASE (COPD) 1
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD )
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD )
A chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the current killers in the world. It is a preventable disease that makes it difficult for the affected individual to empty air out of the lungs otherwise referred to as airflow obstruction. The difficulties in breathing that is brought about by this condition leaves one feeling tired because they use much energy to breathe than required. The c hronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a term that is used to include other types of pulmonary diseases that include chronic bronchitis, emphysema or both. Although asthma is a health condition that results in difficulties in breathing it is not included among the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The effects of the disease are not instant but rather evolve at a slower rate inhibiting the breathing system of a patient. However, the most important thing to note is that the disease can be prevented and it is relatively easier when it is detected in its earlier stages than in advanced stage.
In the United States, between 10 % and 20% of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is said to have been caused by occupational or exposure to chemical vapors, irritants , and fumes which are very much contaminated. A large percentage of patients who are suffering from COPD are said to be smokers , but a recent research indicated that 25 % of patients with COPD have never smoked in the United States. This paper provides an in-depth analysis into chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases including the historical perspective, symptoms, and causes of COPD, method of spread, how it can be contained , and its implication on the economy, treatment , and efforts being put in place to ensure that the disease is contained .
COPD, Chronic, Obstructive. Bronchodilators, Pulmonary, Prevalence, Mortality .
History of the diseases
The c hronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been in existence for the last 200 years; the only difference is that its prevalence back in the day was much lower mainly because of the lower presence of risk factors than they are currently. The disease was recognized by the use of stethoscope and spirometer. Spirometer up to date remains the most efficient method of identifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its respond to therapy. The disease is ranked 4 th amongst the United States killer disease this shows that the disease has indeed evolved because of the high presence of risk factors. It is estimated by various scientific studies done that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease will be the third largest killer in the United States if the situation is not contained ( Barnes et.al, 2012, p.38 ).
The earliest incidences of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The very earliest symptom of COPD was experienced in the year 1679 although it was not directly identified . It was described as voluminous lungs . The lungs of the patients were said to be turgid at the time. In 1789, Baillie published a long documentation highlighting the emphysematous lung which put forth the pathology of the disease. Emphysema was the known type of COPD that occurred very long ago. Jon Hutchison is the brain behind the spirometer which was the commonly used instrument to carry out tests on patients to evaluate if they had the COPD in the year 1846. The spirometer is still used in current settings (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.56).
Symptoms of COPD
The symptoms of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease don not always appear in initial periods but rather take the time to show up especially after excessive lung damage. It is very important for a patient or anyone who develops some uncommon symptoms to visit a healthcare facility to conduct tests to be quite sure that there is no such like condition in play (Littner, 2011, p.23).
The most common symptom of COPD is shortness of breath especially after a short physical exercise or even under little tension. This occurs mainly when the effect on the lungs has started being severe and an individual having shortness of breath should consider visiting a health facility to be fully aware of the extent of his or her problem (Littner, 2011, p.28).
Another symptom to note is that there is always the presence of mucus in the lungs thus an individual has to clear their throat first thing in the morning on a daily basis.
An individual who has this condition has excessive respiratory infections because the immune system is low and cannot be able to fight even the smallest of the infections in the respiratory system. The disease already weakens the system.
In later stages of the disease , a patient undergoes severe weight loss because the body cannot specifically operate norm ally as some functionality are already being subjected to numerous activities in fighting the disease thus preventing the other parts of the busy receive the service needed.
Patients are suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease also are subjected to chest tightness due to the difficulties that the heart undergoes in ensuring that the breathing system is regulated , and body continues to function normally. However, the massive damage to the lungs makes the whole process even more difficult (Littner, 2011, p.51).
The patients also suffer from blueness of the lips or fingernails otherwise referred to as cyanosis. The condition ar ose from poor circulation of blood or in situations when the blood supplied has not been properly subjected to all the stages hence missing the important oxygenation.
Individuals having the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have high chances of experiencing exacerbations, where the symptoms of the disease become worse every single day , and the variations tend to occur for several days or weeks.
It is also important to note that not everyone who has COPD has the symptoms mentioned above , and it is not true that everyone who has the above-mentioned symptoms suffer from the disease. It is imperative for individuals to consider having regular medical checks to know their physical and mental state about various diseases that tend to have silent symptoms and that the symptoms only arise when the conditions are very critical thus risking their life and state of well-being for other individuals. Medical centers are well equipped with diagnosing equipment thus are authorized to carry out tests on patients to kno w what type of disease is one suffering from (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.59) .
The causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases
The prevalence of COPD is recent days has been on the rise , and this can be attributed to the increase in risk factors that are brought about by industrialization. The disease was on the lower side in the 20 th century because the risk factors were not as many as currently being witnessed. Individuals are regularly subjected to these conditions making it difficult to control and manage. The causes of the disease range from biological to environmental and it is im portant to understand the causes so that to be better placed to develop any control measure to deal with these risk factors (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.64).
The most common causes of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a developed country is tobacco smoking while in developing countries the COPD occurs to individuals who are exposed to fumes and other strong chemicals and also cooking in poorly ventilated homes.
Research shows that only 25 % of chronic smokers end up developing clinically associated COPD. Some smokers often develop lesser-known lung conditions. Many smokers are misdiagnosed to the effect of the presence of COPD but until further tests are conducted to provide a true statement about their conditions. It is a common perception the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is mainly for smokers , but this is far from the truth. T he current research studies done indicate that lately many non- smokers are being diagnosed with the disease which raises more questions as to what are some of the risk factors associated with this fast growing disease in the U nited S tates (Barnes et.al, 2012, p.69).
Some researches have been conducted indicating that COPD can result from a genetic disorder in an individual. The genetic disorder causes the presence of low levels of a certain protein cell that is called alpha-1 antitrypsin. This protein cell is made in the liver and secreted straight into the bloodstream to offer protective support to the lungs. Thus, the presence of lower levels the alpha-1 antitrypsin in the body leaves the lungs barely protected and increase the risks of being caught out by the disease with ease. Thus, it is important to conduct various medical tests to be in a better po sition to deal with the outcome (Littner, 2011, p.88).
Another cause for the chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases is the presence of under-treated asthma in an individual’s body. In this situation, the respiratory , immune system is already overworked dealing with asthma making it easier for a different type of disease to easily enter the body of a patient. In this case, the COPD is said to be an opportunistic disease .
The presence of industrial fumes and chemical all over the place brought about by massive industrialization has become the latest risk factor in causing the COPD . Individuals who leave close to these industries have high chances of developing COPD because they high inhale this fumes and chemicals, which are untreated as they are released into the atmosphere by these industries . In the United States , chemicals and fumes inhalation has become one of the major causative agents of the COPD and the research shows that by the year 20130 if the current situation is not contained these will be the highest causative agent for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the United States and all the d eveloped countries (Littner, 2011, p.117).
Method of spread
In the United States , approximately 24 million individuals are infected with this condition . The 12 million individuals have been diagnosed ; there are higher chances that many more individuals may be affected by the disease but are not aware of the same because the disease is still in early stages or they are not exposed to highly technological machines that can effectively detect the presence of COPD in the body.
How the lungs are affected by the COPD
In a medically normal person, the inhaled air travels down from the trachea to the lungs through bronchi. Inside the lungs, the tubes divide severally into bronchioles that are much smaller. The bronchioles deliver the inhaled air into the alveoli that are otherwise known as air sacs . The air sacs comprise of thin walls that are filled with small blood vessels . The air inhaled thus undergoes the oxygenation process at this level and released into the blood stream filled with oxygen. The lu ngs , in general, depend on the ability of bronchial tubes to expand and contract as the normal respiratory process continues ( Tavazzi et.al, 2013, p. 34-39 ).
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease inhibit s the elasticity of bronchial tubes and over expand . This leaves some air trapped within the tubes during exhalation process. Thus bringing about difficulties in breathing. The process is not a one-time activity but keeps on reoccurring until the system cannot accommodate anymore-trapped air in the tubes that cause the adverse effects as witnessed among patients. The initial stages of the disease cannot be easily identified because the body is still in its right frame (Tavazzi et.al, 2013, p. 58).
Methods to contain the disease
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has no cure , but there are measures that can be undertaken to contain the spread of the disease both at its initial stages and also in its advanced stages. The American Lung Association is fully committed to ensuring that patients suffering from the COPD are well-taken care off. The association offers quality resources and information involving the disease where anyone interested can have access and develop the intellectual self. Some of the common methods that individuals can undertake to contain the disease include exercising frequently, taking medication as prescribed by a physician, use of oxygen therapy and attending pulmonary rehabilitations (Murphy and Sethi, 2002 , p.43 ).
Monitor your COPD
The c hronic obstructive pulmonary disease tends to grow worse over time thus it is very important for a COPD patient to monitor the rates and level of COPD to contain it. It is al s o to monitor the reactions to various treatment drugs in order to avoid a fatal reaction.
Therapy with medication
People living with COPD can use medication to relieve adverse symptoms and prevent the disease from further progression. COPD patients usually use medication to enable them to have easy breathing with less energy. The shortness of breath experienced by these patients can be fatal since the heart may not receive the much-needed air to facilitate all the body functionalities.
Patients suffering from COPD always suffer from inadequate oxygen in the body thus requires a boost in the form of oxygen therapy. The lungs are either blocked or damaged thus , cannot effectively distribute enough oxygen throughout the body effectively . H e supplemental oxygen issued increases the levels of pure oxygen in the body so that the lungs can have enough to distribute. Getting extra oxygen can regulate the body functionality into its previous normal activities (Murphy and Sethi, 2002 , p.55 ).
This rehabilitation program is a six to twelve – week program that is mainly aimed at stabilizing the condition of the patients suffering from COPD. It also include s educational sessions and exercises for COPD patients. The pulmonary rehabilitation is said to have a positive impact on patients’ shortness of breath, quality of life and reduce hospitaliza tion days of patients with COPD (Polkey et.al, 2013, p. 44).
Prevalence of the disease in the United States
The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has had an increasing mortality rate among the United States citizens. The disease has gained interest as a major public health concern. The disease is currently under intense research scrutiny because of its ever-increasing prevalence. It is ranked third in the United States most killer diseases. The United S tates alone is understood to have 24 million individuals with COPD with an aggregate of 54 million globally , but the global analysis is most likely to be hindered by the absence of specialized equipment’s that are normally sued to diagnose the disease (Tavazzi et.al, 2013, p. 61).
Figure 1: Proportion of USA population with Spirometric evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, using criteria from the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) to classify subjects.
Adapted from D. M. Mannino et al. Eur Respir J 2006;27:627-643
From the figure above it is quite evident that the mortality as a result of COPD has been on a steady increase over the years since the year 1999. The male population has a higher mortality rate than female population. This can be attributed to their lifestyles as they are highly exposed to more COPD risk factors than their female counterparts are.
Although it is not easy to approximate the costs associated with COPD, the disease has a huge impact on the general economy including direct costs that are incurred including both inpatient and outpatient. T he loss of productivity due to a large percentage of the sick workforce who dedicate much of their time to treatment, in the year 2007, the health costs that were directed to COPD were estimated at $24 billion and the overall cost burden including lack of productivity was $43 billion. In the year 2010, the medical cost of COPD w as estimated to be $ 32.1 billion with prediction studies indicating that united states will incur $ 49 billion regarding medical costs related to COPD (Tavazzi et.al, 2013, p. 73).
The c hronic obstructive pulmonary disease has no absolute cure . T hus , the patients can only relieve or slow down the disease progress in the body by incorporating various treatment actions. Patients suffering from the disease to help in their breathing and air circulation process in the body can use various medicines. All the treatment medicines are mainly aimed at regulating breathing process and air circulation within the body, t he medication that is prescribed for people living with this condition fall und er three significant categories (Pauwels et.al, 2012, p.24) .
Patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary condition to reduce the inflammation that occurs in the airways to facilitate easy breathing and free circulation of air legally use steroids.
These normal antibiotics are used to treat and control bacterial infections in the respiratory systems in COPD patients. Antibiotics are always preferred because the immune system has already been weakened thus cannot deal even with the smallest of the infections.
These are inhalers designed to open up the patient ‘ s airways and facilitate in making breathing much eas ier for a patient (Pauwels et.al, 2012, p.36).
Current and future e ducational efforts
Sensitizing the public about the effects the prevalence of COPD in the United States is a positive in ensuring that the disease does not reach the projected rates in the future. American Lung Association has been at the forefront in ensuring that American citizens are sensibly educated about the dangers of COPD and some common risk factors that can be easily avoided . The association has also placed more informational articles about OCPD have been placed on its official website to facilitate easy access to information by everyone who seeks to find out more about the chroni c obstructive pulmonary disease (Pauwels et.al, 2012, p.49).
Scientists and researchers have identified OCPD, as an area of interest , and a public health concern thus is out to find more improved medical solutions and possible ways to control and manage the disease from becoming a number one killer in the United States .
The c hronic obstructive pulmonary disease is becoming more serious than previously anticipated because of the increased risk factors. The medical practitioners are therefore encouraged to sensitize the public to consider regular medical checkups because some individuals to not have the initial symptoms , but they come to realize when the condition is critical. COPD has no cure thus it can only be regulated so that the disease does not progress into extreme conditions that may be fatal.
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Murphy, T. F., & Sethi, S. (2002). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . Drugs & aging.
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Polkey, M. I., Spruit, M. A., Edwards, L. D., Watkins, M. L., Pinto-Plata, V., Vestbo, J., … & Coxson, H. O. (2013 ). Six-minute-walk test in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: minimal clinically important difference for death or hospitalization . American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine.
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